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Pallcoyo Andes Mountain Range – Vinicunca
In the traditional city of Cusco every day there are national and foreign travelers from all over the world so that they can walk and know the mountain of 7 colors; without difficulty it is about 20 km. away and there is a mountain range of the Andes entirely solitary. A great horizon of mountains where ocher, red, green, blue and white give life to the little spread over the Rainbow Mountain range of Pallcoyo. To get to the Arco Iris mountain range of Pallcoyo, it is very easy to hike compared to the hike to Vinicunca – Rainbow Mountain, because there are no slopes so it will only take you 1 hour of trekking to reach this wonderful destination.
Mountains cover about 22% of the earth’s surface and provide between 60 and 80% of the planet’s fresh water and more than a tenth of the world’s population lives in them. However, another large part of the humanity that inhabits the plains depends in the same way on the goods and services that the mountains provide. It is paradoxical that, despite the enormous wealth in biodiversity, forests, soils and waters, in these areas live the poorest peasant and indigenous communities on the planet, which have been marginalized from a development for different historical reasons. However, these communities have maintained their traditional small-scale farming practices to date, with a wide variety of crops and the integration of forests and livestock in a process of constant adaptation to the difficult and risky mountain conditions. The ancestral resilience demonstrated by the mountain communities to face their productive activities and care of the environment must be put in value precisely this 2014 that has been declared by the General Assembly of the United Nations as the International Year of Family Farming – Rainbow Mountain .
The precariousness of life of mountain people – Pallcoyo, and the ecological importance has motivated international concern, establishing dialogue processes between countries and organizations dedicated to sustainable development in mountain ecosystems. This dialogue is aimed at encouraging specific public policies aimed at improving food security, alleviating poverty, maintaining the natural resource base and the flow of environmental services, while respecting the rich culture of high-altitude communities. In effect, the role played by the Mountain Alliance is highlighted. This organization voluntarily brings together 53 governments and dozens of international, national and local non-governmental organizations united with the mission of being a platform for advocacy and highlighting in the global arena. mountain ecosystems and the challenges for their sustainability. An example of the work done was to include the mountain areas in the final document of Rio + 20 and open discussion spaces in several international conventions related to this theme. Today the effort focuses on making visible the problem of mountains in the post-2015 agenda .
Latin America, in turn, has promoted a regional meeting space called the Andean Initiative within the framework of the Alliance for Mountains. This Initiative brings together all the countries that share the Andes Mountains, which recognize the conditions of great diversity and extreme economic, social and environmental vulnerability of mountain ecosystems and that require integrated management to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants. .
Indeed, the Cordillera de los Andes is one of the most important mountain ranges in the world, on whose slopes live 82 million people distributed in the six countries that participated in this study. One third of this population corresponds to native ethnic groups facing difficulties of environmental aspects, such as soil degradation, alarming reduction of river levels, loss of natural resources and biodiversity, strong pressure of use on their habitats. Problems are also linked to the lack of economic opportunities that result in heavy migration to the plains and cities with the consequent loss of traditional knowledge, increasing the poverty situation of the Andean communities in a complex scenario of climate change that affects the mountains with great intensity.
This document is an effort of the Andean Initiative of the Alliance for Mountains supported by FAO, which hosts the Secretariat of the Alliance, to improve knowledge of the environmental and economic situation of mountain areas. It also aims to visualize common themes of work among the countries and to be a contribution in the consolidation of the necessary institutionalization and better integration in the political agendas of mountain issues at the national and regional levels. Without pretending to comprehensively cover all its topics, this document synthesizes and compiles the main official data provided by each country on its mountains to collectively construct a first guiding document and that contributes to the integration of the Andean countries.
Insolent mountain with white-winged hat,
indecently cold, of stone cliffs,
you turn the history of your people into water
that falls through his veins in the form of springs.
High, high, indomitable heights!
You hide in the cliffs the true line of human existence,
the only American accuracy, inexhaustible eternity,
the life that beats with a heart of stone.
Francisco Mendoza – caminoincasalkantay.com
The tenth part of humanity receives its sustenance directly from the mountains – mountain of 7 colors – vinicunca. But mountains are important not only for those who inhabit them, but for millions of people who live in the lowlands. On the world scale, the greatest value of mountains can be to be sources of all the great rivers of the world and of many minors.
Mountains play an essential role in the water cycle by capturing moisture from air masses; When the water precipitates in the form of snow, it is stored until it melts in summer, which is essential for the populations, crops and industries of the lower lands, often during the period of lower rainfall. In arid and semi-arid regions, more than 90% of river flows come from the mountains.
The Andes mountain range is a chain of mountains in South America between 11 ° latitude N and 55 ° latitude S, which crosses Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru Travel and part of Venezuela. This is the longest mountain range on Earth, with about 7,500 km in length. The average height is around 4,000 meters, with its highest point in the Aconcagua (6,961 m), transforming this mountain into one of the highest on the planet outside the Himalayas system. It constitutes a huge mountainous mass that runs in a south-north direction, contouring the coast of the Pacific Ocean and extending in South America to the Northern Patagonian Cordillera and the Southern Patagonian Cordillera.
At the end of the Cretaceous, closing the Mesozoic (Secondary Era), subduction movements of the Nazca Plate began under the South American. During the Paleogene and the Neogene (Tertiary) important pulses of these movements (Indian Cycle) formed the Cordillera de los Andes. Subsequent seismic movements and volcanic activity have been more important in the configuration of relief than external erosive agents.
In the current morphology there are high mountain ranges, together with extensive highlands and deep longitudinal valleys parallel to the great mountainous axes. The transversal valleys are scarce, except in the Argentine-Chilean Andes.
In its southern part it serves as a natural border between Argentina and Chile, an area in which the highest mountains of the continent are found. In the central zone, the Andes are widened giving rise to a high plateau known as the altiplano, shared by Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru Travel. The mountain range becomes narrow again in the north of Peru Travel and Ecuador, widens again in Colombia where it is also divided into three branches, two go to the north and northwest of Colombia and one goes to Venezuela, where the mountain range extends until almost touching the Caribbean Sea.
The Andes mountain range is the most characteristic feature of the South American relief, covers an area of 2,870,596 km2 and has a great climatic and geomorphological variability that translates into a high natural ecosystem richness. In the present study, the Andean Macrozone has been defined as the territory made up of 6 of the 7 countries that share the Andes Mountains, formed by; Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru Travel, except Venezuela.
More than 82 million people live in the Macrozone in the Altitude range (> 300;> 4,500 meters above sea level), which is presented in disaggregated form by section and incorporating an estimator to the missing data. It can be inferred that: 21,868,640 live in the Range of 300> 1,000msnm and 60,257,615 live in the Range of 1,000> 4,500 masl, with Bolivia being the country with the highest percentage with 95% of the mountain population, representing 5,459,385 inhabitants and in absolute terms Colombia registers 31,881 .178 inhabitants on the level 1000 masl. There is insufficient knowledge of the interaction with the Andean communities where 36.59% of the people living in the mountain correspond to ancestral indigenous peoples, and where their economic situation in these geographical areas, in a context of population growth, socioeconomic development and environmental sustainability are being vulnerable and altered.
This document is the result of work carried out in the technical cooperation project called “Strengthening Participatory Management for Sustainable Development of the Andes” coordinated by FAO together with the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The project falls within the framework of the priority areas of action identified by the members of the Andean Initiative of the Mountain Partnership. The idea of summarizing the main results of the project is due to the need to make known the importance of the Andes Mountains, which offers a shared geographical space between seven countries, with invaluable wealth that gives life to unique ecosystems and millions of people who share similar opportunities and challenges.
In the First Chapter Pallcoyo; The methodological design is developed, beginning its conformation with the determination of the type of research that due to its characteristics will be of a qualitative nature; Its methodological approach will be descriptive in character to observe and understand the characteristics of the mountain habitat of each country and understand the actions carried out by its different actors. We continue with the definition of variables to be investigated that will allow us to identify the common mobilization factors for the management of mountain resources. In the main they are described in: environmental, social cultural, economic productive, training and social integration. It continues with an analysis of the institutionality of the Mountain Committee.
In the second chapter Pallcoyo; the analysis of results is developed, beginning its conformation under methodology of information collection, establishing a systematization and constant comparative analysis. The border or limiting conditions faced by the study are indicated. It continues with the analysis of environmental variables (surface, water, glacial, vegetation, protected areas, biodiversity). It continues with the social and cultural dimension (population, mountain population, urban-rural population, indigenous population, population and gender and tangible and intangible cultural heritage). The dimension of poverty in the Andean Macrozone continues (income distribution, illiteracy, and rural poverty gaps). It continues with the productive economic dimension in mountain area (mining, agriculture, livestock, tourism). The mountain safety and risk dimension continues (food security and sustainable crops, safety and risk in the mountain habitat, natural disasters, climate change).
In the third chapter Pallcoyo; The different degrees of deepening existing in the institutionality are developed and systematized. It continues with the identification of roles and functions in the management established in mountain issues, to finally present the different degrees of action established in the National Mountain Committees by the countries that are part of the study.
Antecedents and context of Pallcoyo The Cordillera de los Andes – Cusco:
2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of the Mountains in recognition of the fundamental role that these ecosystems represent in the lives of millions of people around the planet. Since then, there have been a series of dialogue processes and initiatives at a global and regional level, among which the most important was the creation of the Alliance for Mountains, an international organization of the second type that currently has 228 members of the which 53 are countries, 13 intergovernmental organizations and 162 main groups and non-governmental organizations, bringing together voluntarily all those who are concerned with protecting mountain ecosystems and improving the living conditions of people who live at high altitudes.
A great role has been played by the Alliance for Mountains in terms of influencing politically in the world sphere, today the Most of the forums and international conventions gather the theme, dedicating space to the mountains. All the Andean countries are members of the Mountain Alliance and under that scope they have carried out a process of dialogue for more than a decade that allowed them in 2007 to outline an action plan.
The underlying issue underlying the problem of mountains in the region is that they are fragile ecosystems, particularly vulnerable to climate change and susceptible to accelerated erosion. They suffer from strong pressure from anthropogenic factors such as shifting cultivation, unsustainable tourism, illegal logging, pollution, the presence of unsustainable extractive industry, the invasion of exotic species, the loss of water and biodiversity, which constitute a serious threat to this important region in the global context, and to its inhabitants, particularly with regard to food security. These factors make the existence of an integral and articulated approach, in a multidisciplinary and intersectoral manner, even more imperative, thus constituting the most appropriate way to find solutions to the multiple and diverse demands that arise in the mountain of mountains. colors.
The particularity of the Pallcoyo mountains, and especially the Andean space, is expressed in the defense of the springs of the great rivers; the protection of the high basins; of the associated forest masses and their correlate in stopping the erosion of hillsides and soils, and avoiding the floods that impact downstream in the densely populated areas, especially in the urban centers Arco Iris.
It is also necessary to grant the precise value represented by the páramos and / or high Andean wetlands, today associated with the livelihood and reproduction of camelids and birds in the Andean mountain range. Also the fundamental relevance of Andean ancestral cultures and wisdom, respecting, preserving and maintaining their knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities that involve traditional lifestyles relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, being necessary to defend and distribute equitably its possible benefits of the mountain range.
The indigenous communities that have lived in the Andes for centuries are now threatened by the lack of economic opportunities generated by the growing food insecurity, poverty, social marginalization and emigration with strong erosion of social capital, loss of traditional knowledge and cultures of caminoincasalkantaytrek.
Montaña del Arco Iris has the importance of the cultural heritage that merits equally, its conservation, safeguarding and Valorization, as an important component of reaffirmation of the Andean identity and of the cultural and social capital of the subregion.
The Andean region includes different countries, which although they have a common Hispanic determinant, have features distinctive that correspond to the different civilizations and original populations of this vast area. Although all are part of the Andean region in a broad sense, the differences are fundamentally related to the diversity of the Andean ecosystems that are found there: wetlands, páramos, tropical and temperate forests, greater or lesser presence of indigenous populations and, in some cases, heirs of great pre-Hispanic civilizations, with all that this implies in terms of knowledge and technologies for the sustainable management of mountain ecosystems, including the mountain of Salkantay trek, mountain ausangate trek, mountain of colors.
This means that the problems linked to the development of the Andean mountains are not circumscribed by borders or political divisions, but correspond to areas determined mainly by geographical, sociocultural and climatological characteristics, among many others.
The issue of the sustainable development of the Andes can not be tackled in an isolated way by the countries. Because of this principle, all the governments of the Andean countries decided to work together within the framework of the Mountain Partnership, and to constitute an Andean Initiative.
One of the main objectives of the Andean Initiative is the identification and articulation of the various actions, strategies and policies that are being implemented in the mountain areas of the Andean countries at regional, national and local levels, with a view to achieving an adequate complement of resources and capacities for a better convergence between public and private, national, regional and international organisms, with the purpose of designing and implementing integral policies for mountains.
The countries of the Andean Initiative in the successive meetings held in the last decade identify:
a) the insufficient knowledge and dispersed information at national level of the ecological and economic situation of
the mountain areas of each country;
b) the high need for training and programs on issues related to mountain development and the protection of natural resources;
c) the lack of an effective regional mechanism for the management of common problems and challenges, in some
cases of a cross-border nature, and that in circumstances hinder development in the Andes and hinder better
understanding of this issue at the media level and integration into political agendas.
The lack of detailed and scientifically proven information limits the exchange of knowledge and financial investment, and sometimes involves the duplication of studies and projects. A compilation of the main programs and projects executed in mountain areas as well as a comparable diagnosis of the condition of the Andes are key stages to develop a common work in the development of a sustainable strategy for the Andean region.
The Andes and the sustainable development of the mountain communities, and in this process, be a contribution to the consolidation and institutional strengthening of the National Mountain Committees.
I was born on a mountain, my sweet mother tells me
that the sun shined my crib on a peeled mountain
I was born free as the wind of the Antioquia jungles
like the condor of the Andes that from mountain to mountain flies
Eagle pigeon that is born on the peak of a rock
always likes the peaks where the winds cool
Oh! freedom that you perfume the mountains of my land,
let my children aspire your fragrant essences!
You can do Tourism in the Cordillera de los Andes?
If tourism is done in the mountains of the Andes given the magnitude of the Andean mountain range, it is possible to find an enormous diversity of landscapes and conditions. Indeed, the great extensions of highlands and inner valleys to the mountains, give rise to a rich biodiversity of flora and wildlife. Both animal and plant species have developed formidable adaptation characteristics to the extreme temperatures and conditions of height and terrains unfavorable The Cordillera de Los Andes is an attraction international tourism, due to its morphological distinction and natural beauty. In addition to the natural attractions as to its mountains, lakes, rivers, forests, flora, fauna, glaciers and others, some historical-cultural attractions stand out as are the Inca ruins in the territories of Bolivia and Peru.
This mountain range is ideal for the practice of some extreme winter sports such as mountaineering, trekking and rafting. Skiing and snowboarding are sports with greater infrastructure designed in equipped centers first class tourism. In the case of Chile, the zones of mountains (Ski centers, National Parks, etc.) are the main destination of foreigners visiting the country, what which is a significant fact if one considers that that country entered in foreign currency by tourism over the 2,500 million of dollars in 2012.
Mountain tourism is one of the economic activities with dynamism and potential for future growth. It has been been diversifying in its offer and specializing in different types such as: adventure tourism and ecotourism, gastronomic tourism, ethnotourism, rural tourism, cultural and historical heritage, among others.
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Pallcoyo Andes Mountain Range
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